In general, the soil is a major global reservoir of carbon and nutrients, which can contribute to biogeochemical cycles and atmospheric greenhouse gas issues. Although “soil degradation” refers to soil degradation as a global phenomenon, it refers to changes in individual properties.

In addition to being degraded due to erosion of topsoil, soil nutrient (especially nitrogen) enrichment has become a risk factor in some parts of the world due to excessive fertilizer use. This leads to serious agricultural problems due to water contamination, salinization, and acidification of soils.



It is necessary to create and implement policies that protect the environment for the sustainable development of all nations. Policies to protect the environment can include:

  • Limiting greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution.
  • Protecting and preserving natural habitats for wildlife and endangered species.
  • Restricting urban sprawl.
  • Establishing environmentally friendly building codes.


Climate change is by far the most critical environmental problem humanity faces. It demands immediate, coordinated, and far-reaching action not only by the governments but also by the people.

Otherwise, the global climate will be severely affected, and humanity will face a greatly increased risk of catastrophic, irreversible consequences.