Mines and quarries are places where large-scale and often destructive extraction of minerals such as coal, oil, natural gas, precious metals, or stone occurs. Although these natural resources can be used to improve people’s lives, they also negatively impact the environment and the livelihoods of local communities.


The extraction of natural resources such as gold and other precious metals has led to significant environmental and human health hazards. As a result, many countries have banned mercury in gold mining.

Coal and metal mining also creates hazardous conditions for human health and the environment, resulting in land degradation due to soil erosion and landslides.